The field of hair restoration is a dynamic specialty whereby advanced technologies enable surgeons to achieve more aesthetically pleasing results. Hair loss seems to have troubled humanity since the dawn of history evidenced in a prescription for restoring hair that was included in the 1500 B C. Ebers papyrus of ancient Egypt.
The success of modern hair transplantation depends on a phenomenon first described by Orentreich in 1957 as donor dominance. With this phenomena, hair taken from the permanent hair-bearing rim of patients with androgenetic alopecia (donor area) and transferred to non-hair-bearing areas of the scalp (recipient area), continues to grow in its new site for as long as it would have in the area from which it was taken.
Baromio transplants hairy areas in animals
J. Dieffenbach performs auto-transplantation of hair into skin
Okuda uses 2- 4 mm punch grafts for restoration of alopecia
Tamura implants single hair grafts by injection for restoration of the skin overlying the mons pubis in the female
Limmer uses microscopes for the creation of small 1 to 5 hair grafts inserted into needle slits.
Uebel performs the excision of a linear donor strip
Limmer single-strip harvests using stereomicroscopic dissection of individual follicular units, known today as FUT or the strip procedure.
Woods harvests single follicular units using smaller circular punches (1 mm) with an acceptable aesthetic appearance and low transection rate
Bernstein and Rassman describe their follicular unit transplantation technique, contributing the term “follicular unit” to the nomenclature
Rassman and Bernstein describe FUE as a surgical technique in medical literature
Hair varies among the different ethnic groups and among singular individuals. It has two separate structures: the follicle in the skin and the hair shaft, which is visible on the body surface. There are various hair types.
The majority of hair shafts emerge from the scalp as single-4 hair groupings. The groupings are the visible superficial portion of the follicular unit (FU). The FU generally consists of one to four terminal hair follicles and one vellus follicles.
Hair direction differs acording to the part of the scalp. Both the direction and the angle of the incision must therefore be individualized with regard to the part of the scalp.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ. The cyclic activity requires the regeneration and new assembly of nonpermanent portion of the hair follicle during each cycle.
On average, the amount of new scalp hair formation matches the amount that is shed, thereby maintaining a consistent covering.
There are 3 main phases of the hair follicle cycle: an active growth (anagen); regression (catagen) and quiescent (telogen). How long each phase takes partly depends on the type of follicle and its geographic location. Recently, the two other stages of the hair cycle have been described: release (exogen) and lag time (kenogen).
Diseases that cause hair loss are categorized according to whether the hair loss is diffuse or localized, and to whether the follicle remains intact or is destroyed and replaced by scar. The potential trigger factors attributed to inflammation, genetics, the environment, and hormones.
Hair loss disorders have three essential mechanisms that involve hair follicle density, hair follicle size and hair growth cycle duration.
Androgens have paradoxically different effects on human hair follicles depending on their body site. Testosterone is the major circulating androgen in men. Testosterone reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase enzyme . DHT binds to the androgen receptor. In the balding scalp, 5α-reductase is increased, resulting in the increased production of DHT.
AGA, is the most common cause of hair loss. It affects up to 70% of men in mid adult life. MPHL occurs in the presence of androgens in genetically susceptible individuals. Recently increased prostaglandin D2 level in the hair follicles is suggested as one of the major causes for AGA.
The key feature in MPHL is follicular miniaturization. The duration of active growth phase reduces from 2-6 years to a few months, whereas the quiescent stage relatively lengthen. New generations of hairs becoming shorter, finer, and lighter in color and they conceal the scalp less. The transition may be gradual or can come in waves, and the course and extent of MPHL are unpredictable.
The male pattern generally begins with bitemporal recession, followed by vertex baldness and mid-frontal hair loss; allowing the terminal hair follicles to be retained in the occipital scalp region. The most commonly used system to grade MPHL is the Hamilton–Norwood Scale.
In compliance with the obligations derived from the European GDPR (European Regulation for the protection of personal data No. 679/2016), this site respects and protects the privacy of visitors and users while making an extreme effort to put in place everything possible in order to avoid damaging the rights of its Users.
This site does not publish advertisements, does not use data for the purpose of sending advertising, but makes use of third-party services in order to improve the use of the site. These third parties may collect user data and then use it to send announcements custom advertising on other sites. However, this site implements every possible effort to protect the privacy of Users and to minimize the collection of personal data. For example, the site uses YouTube videos in some cases, which are set so as not to send cookies (and therefore do not collect data) until the user starts the video. The site also uses social plugins to simplify the sharing of articles on social networks. These plugins are configured to send cookies (and therefore eventually collect data) only after the user has clicked on the plugin.
For more information, please read the information below.
This site processes data primarily based on user consent. The consent is given by the completion of the Consultation Booking Form and Questionnaire within the site used for the specific purpose of rendering a service. With the use of this form, site visitors and Users approve this privacy statement and give consent to the processing of their personal data in relation to the methods and purposes described below. Denying consent by not completing the form may make it impossible to provide certain services.
Legal Basis for the Processing of Information
The processing of data collected by the site, in addition to the purposes stated, are deemed necessary for the provision of the service and is for the following purposes:
Statistical (Analysis) The collection of data and information, in this instance, is an exclusively aggregate and anonymous form in order to verify the correct functioning of the site. None of this information is related to the physical person-user of the site, and identification is not allowed in any way. Consent is not necessary.
Security Collection of data and information in order to protect the security of the site (spam filters, firewall, virus detection) and Users and to prevent or unmask fraud or abuse to the detriment of the website. The data is recorded automatically and may also include personal data (IP addresses) that could be used, in accordance with applicable laws, in order to block attempts to damage the site itself or to harm other users, or otherwise harmful activities or constituting crime. This data is never used for the identification or profiling of the User and are periodically deleted. Consent is not necessary.
Auxiliary Activities Communicate the data to third parties who perform functions necessary or instrumental to the operation of the service (e.g. forms, comment boxes), and to allow third parties to perform technical, logistical and other activities on our behalf. Providers only have access to the personal data that is necessary to perform their duties. They undertake not to use the data for other purposes, and are required to process personal data in accordance with applicable regulations.
Collected data - Information Collected This site collects user data in two ways:
1) Data Collected in an Automated Manner While browsing, the following information can be collected from Users that is stored in the server's (hosting) site log files:
Internet Protocol (IP) address Type of browser Parameters of the device used to connect to the site Name of the Internet service provider (ISP); Date and time of visit Web page of origin of the visitor (referral) and exit Number of clicks.
The data used for statistical and analytical purposes is only in aggregate form. The IP address is used exclusively for security purposes and is not crossed with any other data.
2) Data Provided Voluntarily This site may collect other data such as in the case of voluntary use of services by Users for communication purposes (Consultation Forms, Contact Forms, Questionnaire), and will be used exclusively for the provision of the requested service.
First name, surname Email address Profession Town/City of Residence Medical Questionnaire Related to Hair Transplant Surgery
Location of Data Retention and Treatment
The data collected by the site is processed at the datacenter Hetzner Cloud computing company that is responsible for data processing and the processing of data on behalf of the holder. It is located in the European economic area and acts in accordance with European standards.
Data Retention Period
The data collected by the site during its operation is kept for the time strictly necessary to carry out the activities specified. On the expiry date, the data will be deleted or made anonymous, unless there are further purposes for the storage of the same.
The data (IP address) used for the purposes of site security (block attempts to damage the site) are stored for 90 of days.
Transferring the Collected Data to Third Parties The data collected by the site are generally not provided to third parties, except in specific cases: legitimate request by the judicial authorities and only in the cases provided by law; if it is necessary for the provision of a specific service requested by the User; for the execution of security checks or site optimization.
Data transfer in non-EU countries
This site may share some of the data collected with services located outside the European Union area. In particular with Google, Facebook and Microsoft (LinkedIn) through social plugins and the Google Analytics service. The transfer is authorized on the basis of specific decisions of the European Union and the Guarantor for the protection of personal data. The companies mentioned above guarantee their adherence to the Privacy Shield.
This site uses the following cookie categories:
Analysis Cookies – This is used directly by the site operator to collect information on the number of users and how they visit the site. This is done in aggregate form. They are similar to technical cookies if the service is made anonymous.
Profiling and Marketing Cookies – This is used exclusively by third parties other than the owner of this site to collect information on the behavior of users during navigation, and on interests and consumption habits, also in order to provide personalized advertising.
Choices and Obligations
THE DISABILITY OF COOKIES COULD PREVENT THE CORRECT USE OF SOME FUNCTIONS OF THE SAME SITE, in particular the services provided by third parties may not be accessible, and therefore may not be viewable:
YouTube videos or other video sharing services Google Maps
Instructions for disabling cookies can be found on the following web pages:
Mozilla Firefox - Microsoft Internet Explorer - Microsoft Edge - Google Chrome - Opera - Apple Safari
Third Party Cookies
Google Analytics – It is used to analyze the use of the site by users, compile reports on site activity and user behavior, check how often users visit the site, how the site is tracked and which pages are visited most frequently. The information is combined with information collected from other sites in order to create a comparative picture of the use of the site compared to other sites of the same category.
Data collected: browser identification, date and time of interaction with the site, page of origin, IP address. Place of data processing: European Union
The data collected does not allow personal identification of users, and is not intersected with other information relating to the same person. It is treated in an aggregate form (truncated to the last octet). Under a specific agreement, Google Inc. is prohibited from crossing this data with those obtained from other services.
Further information on Google Analytics cookies can be found on the Google Analytics Cookie Usage on Websites page.
The user can selectively opt-out the collection of data by Google Analytics by installing the appropriate component provided by Google on his browser (opt out).
Youtube - Platform, owned by Google, for video sharing. Cookies are set when accessing the embed page, and when the video starts, and do not allow the identification of the User unless it is already logged into the Google profile. For videos on the site, the "advanced privacy (no cookie)" option has been activated, which prevents YouTube from storing visitor information unless they voluntarily reproduce the video.
Data collected - Number and behavior of service users, IP address, information linking site visits to the Google Account for users already logged in, preferences on displaying videos.
Place of data processing: USA.Close